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Citing Sources: Internet Sources - APA

This guide indicates the appropriate form for layout, in-text citations, and bibliography for MLA, APA, and Chicago formatted papers.

Evaluating Websites

More information is provided in the Research Guide about evaluating websites. The acronym C.R.A.A.P. cas serve as a quick reminder:

The CRAAP Test 

Currency: 

Is the information up-to-date for your topic?

Relevance

Does the information relate to your topic and is it at a good reading level for you?

Authority: 

Who is the author (or publisher, source, sponsor) and are they qualified to write about the topic?

Accuracy:

Does the language seem unbiased and are there no grammatical errors?

Purpose:

What is the reason for the site? Is it to inform and teach or is it designed to sell, entertain, or persuade? 

(Adapted from the Meriam Library, California State University, Chico and the Michigan Library Association CRAAP Test Worksheet)

Sources:

This LibGuide is based on the APA Citations LibGuide created by Montgomery College Libraries. The content and format are used with permission.

The APA Formatting Style Guide by OWL at  Purdue was also used with permission.

General Information - APA and Internet Sources

Internet Sources are difficult to cite because the information available is not consistent. When creating your citation, follow the citation guidelines and use as much information as you have.  

  • Alphabetize your reference list by the first word of the citation (usually the author's last name).
  • Double space all of the citations on your reference page.
  • Indent the second & following lines of the citation 5-7 spaces.  
  • For 2-7 authors: Wingert, P., Smith, J., & Brown, P.
  • For more than 7 authors:List the first six authors, then put an ellipses (. . .) before the final author’s name.
  • Only capitalize the first word of the document title. If there is a colon in the title, capitalize the first word after the colon.
  • Vol., issue, and pages may not always be available on Internet sources.  If they are not used, the name of the journal is all that can be provided in the reference list.
  • No Date: Use n.d. (no date) when a publication date is not available.
  • URL: Break a URL that goes to another line after a slash or before a period.
  • No period after URL address is required.

Creating an Entry for Internet Resoures in a Reference List

Referring to a Web Site

Format

If you reference an entire Web site (not a specific part of or document on the site), you may just give the URL address in the text. No entry is needed in the Reference List.

Example

In the text of your paper, cite like this:

The Maryland Nurses Association Web site offers information about membership (http://www.marylandrn.org).

In-text Citations with APA - Electronic Sources with No Page Numbers

A database source is NOT the same as an Internet source. Most sites do not reproduce the article exactly as it was published in the original journal or magazine. If you find an article on a news website, such as the BBC site or CBC site please remember to cite the source as a website.

Use author or title and year. 

For an electronic source without pages but with numbered paragraphs, use “para.” and the paragraph number. If there are no numbered paragraphs, provide a section header.

Format
Signal phrase, "quote" (Author, Year).

Signal phrase, "quote" (Shortened title, Year).

Example
According to a study, "Twins reared apart report similar feelings" (Palfrey, 2005, Conclusions section).

In-text Citations with APA - Electronic Sources with No Publication Date

Use the abbreviation “n.d.” for “no date.” 

If there are no page numbers on an electronic source, you can use numbered paragraphs. Use "para." and paragraph number or provide a section header.

Format
Signal phrase with author’s name (n.d.), “quote” (p. page number).

Signal phrase, “quote” (Author, n.d., p. page number).

Example
According to Magnus (n.d.), "it has been difficult to identify a connection between watching television and eating habits" (p. 67).

APA Checklist - Quick Guide for Printing

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