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Citing Sources: Works Cited page - Quick Guide

This guide indicates the appropriate form for layout, in-text citations, and bibliography for MLA, APA, and Chicago formatted papers.


I strongly encourage you to use a citation generator when creating your Works Cited page. It will assist you in formatting the citation correctly and formatting the page correctly. If you choose not to use a citation generator then please follow the format provided or follow another example.

Works Cited - Formatting Entries

In an effort to increase flexibility in documentation, the 8th edition of the MLA Handbook has outlined the core elements of Works Cited list entries. Your responsibility is to include all the elements you can find in the order listed below. It the element isn't available, then you don't have to include it. The elements are:

1. Author. -->The author(s) of the work.  For multiple authors, list their names in the same order they appear in the work.  MLA Style uses each author's full name in the following order: authorlastname, authorfirstname.  If there are two authors, invert the second author's name so it is authorfirstname, authorlastname. If there are three or more authors, use the first author's name and "et al."  For example:

One author:

Thompson, Andrea.

Two authors:

Goderich, Felicia, and Merida Oakman.

Three authors or more:

Kerich, David, et al.

2. Title of source. -->Title of the work. Subtitles are included after the main title.

3. Title of container, -->This is the name of the journal, website, newspaper, etc. that contains the work,

4. Other contributors, -->This refers to other people who were involved with the work, such as an editor or narrator,

5. Version, --> Use this when your source states indications it is a different version from the original, e.g., revised edition, 8th edition, director's cut,

6. Number, -->This element is used to refer to volume numbers in books, volume and/or issue numbers in journals, seasons and episodes in television shows, etc.,

7. Publisher, -->The publisher is the organization responsible for making the source available to the public.,

8. Publication date, -->This is the date when the source was published,

9. Location. --> This refers to the location of your source within its container, for example, the page numbers of an essay, the URL of a page or post from a website, or the page numbers of an article from a journal. .

*NOTE: If you are citing a source located in a second source then you would repeat the process and include all the information you can find from the second source as part of the citation.

The 8th edition of the MLA Handbook strives to be less prescriptive about references. Therefore, you will need to consider what is necessary to include for each of your sources in order for your reader to locate it. 

Here are some general examples to help you decide what to include, see pp.20-58 of the MLA Handbook (8th edition) for more details (notes in bold apply to any item in a Works Cited list, not just the related example):

Article from an online periodical

Shah, Parilah Mohd, and Fauziah Ahmad. "A Comparative Account of the Bilingual Education Programs in Malaysia and the United States." GEMA Online Journal of Language Studies, vol. 199, no. 2, Jan. 2015, pp. 99-125, doi:10.1354/gojl.2000.0034.

Works published on the web sometimes have a DOI (digital object identifier) assigned to them.  The DOI is preferable to the URL because it will stay the same even if the URL changes. If you don't have a DOI, use the URL.


Article from a Library Database

Visit MLA's Works Cited: A Quick Guide for a breakdown of how to cite articles from databases.

Chan, Evan, et al. "Postmodernism and Hong King Cinema." Postmodern Culture, vol.10 no. 3, 2012, pp. 44-78. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1345/acd.2003.0087.

Sources contained in a database use a "nested container" approach to include the database name, (EBSCOhost in the example above).  See pp. 31-32 of the MLA Handbook, 8th ed. for more details.

Books and eBooks

Davis, James R. Don't Wake Me Up: Sleep Deprivation in the 21st Century. Oxford UP, 2015.

"University Press" can be shorted to "UP."

Henry, Lonny, et al. Tech Stress: The Digital Age and the Decline of Mental Wellness. Pearson, 2015.

If a work has more than three authors, use the first author's name that appears followed by a comma and "et al."


Brittany, Kevin, and Deborah Kaine. Macroeconomics and the Future of North America. HarperCollins Publishers, 2014,


An Essay in a Collection

Visit MLA's Works Cited: A Quick Guide for a breakdown of how to cite essays contained in a book with other essays.

Chester, Cheryl. “Implications of Dog Breeding.” Issues in Domestic Animal Abuse, edited by Chester and Daniel Forester, Cambridge UP, 2013, pp. 195-213.

Online Video

Visit MLA's Works Cited: A Quick Guide for a breakdown of how to cite online videos.

NC Libraries. "The Why, Where, and When of Citing." YouTube, 14 May 2015,


@wherewhy. "Ottawa Protest Underway - #Canadiandemo." Twitter, 14 July 2014, 10:20 a.m.,

Use the full text of the tweet in place of the title and treat the username as the author name.


For a page from a website:

Davidson, Joshua. "Riesling in the Niagara Region." Ontario Wine for Consumers, 23 June 2015,

For an entire website (NOTE: you are more likely to be using a page from a website, rather than the entire website):

Davidson, Joshua. Ontario Wine for Consumers. 2010-16,