Encyclopedias and general/background sources are excellent for gathering information at the beginning of the research cycle. Background sources are any sources that provide a broad overview of a topic including but not limited to encyclopedias, dictionaries, and atlases. They can provide important dates and names. They can also provide alternate terms and related issues to help a researcher better understand the scope of a topic. Background sources can help a researcher develop a set of keywords and phrases and key ideas which will help with further searches.
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The process of creating a citation for a book is the same for MLA, APA, or Chicago. NoodleTools will format it correctly based on the format you chose when you created your project.
Electronic encyclopedia articles (e-books), online or through a database: APA rules ask for the URL of the publisher home page, but St. Paul's teachers prefer the name of the database where you retrieved the article. If the encyclopedia is freely available online, use the URL for the article. In addition, APA rules do not require a retrieval date for electronic sources, unless they are likely to change. St. Paul's teachers want to see the retrieval date.
Use author or title and year.
For an electronic source without pages but with numbered paragraphs, use “para.” and the paragraph number. If there are no numbered paragraphs, provide a section header.
Signal phrase, "quote" (Author, Year).
Signal phrase, "quote" (Shortened title, Year).
According to a study, "Twins reared apart report similar feelings" (Palfrey, 2005, Conclusions section).
Use the abbreviation “n.d.” for “no date.”
If there are no page numbers on an electronic source, you can use numbered paragraphs. Use "para." and paragraph number or provide a section header.
Signal phrase with author’s name (n.d.), “quote” (p. page number).
Signal phrase, “quote” (Author, n.d., p. page number).
According to Magnus (n.d.), "it has been difficult to identify a connection between watching television and eating habits" (p. 67).